Flavour Dynamic and portion size
One important trend is to develop food products with flavour prairing. Obviously people wants to be able to indentify or at least feel the difference between the different flavours, this raise a question around the flavour dynamic over the eating experience by consumers but for sensory experts how to measure espetially one fork versus full portion?
Flavour dynamic should be coincident to the safety of combining various flavours. Chemical concoctions could be a potential human risk. Taste notwithstanding, certain chemical combinations may be harmful to humans. The end product may make some people sick, damage their organs, or kill them. Careful screening of all chemical additives must be practiced prior to taste tests. In particular, the ingredients must be tested for the absence of bacterial pathogens and infectious diseases. The long-term use of products is often not considered by vendors of consumer goods. For example, tobacco product vendors defending smoking by humans for generations, avoiding the issues of health damages. Chemical dyes and flavourings should also be considered in this same category.
Eating is initiated when a state of hunger is reached, but under most circumstances, not just any food will do; usually, people experience hunger for foods under particular circumstances. The palatability of the food plays very important role in food intake and from many investigative studies it was found that increase in palatability leads to increase in food intake and hence obesity. The influence of palatability on appetite and food intake in humans has been investigated in several studies using different sensory properties such as flavor, texture, and appearance. Food flavor is important in appetite uptake and control, but it is not the stand-alone parameter that influence the appetite intake. Study using varying flavor has shown diverse results. Flavor in some instances showed increased food uptake, whereas in some other studies showed decrease in food uptake. Therefore, foods presented in multiple combinations of parameters has significant impact on food intake. Increasing the variety of sensorialy distinct foods that are almost identical in composition can control food and energy intake and hence might be useful for obesity control. The whole process is controlled by complex neurological systems in human brain. Functional neuroimaging in humans, show that the primary taste cortex in the anterior insula provides separate and combined representations of the taste, temperature, and texture (including fat texture) of food in the mouth independently of hunger and thus of reward value and pleasantness. One the other hand One synapse on, in a second tier of processing, in the orbitofrontal cortex, all those sensory inputs (taste, temperature, and texture) are for some neurons combined by associative learning with olfactory and visual inputs.
References for further reading:
- Berthoud H, Morrison C: The brain, appetite, and obesity.Annu Rev Psychol 2008,2008(59):55–92.
- Rolls ET, Rolls JH. Olfactory sensory-specific satiety in humans. Physiol Behav 1997; 61: 461–473.
- Edmund T. Rolls. Taste, olfactory, and food reward value processing in the brain. Progress in Neurobiology, 2015;127–128: 64-90
- Lorenzo D. Stafford. Olfactory Specific Satiety depends on degree of association between odour and food. Appetite, 2016; 98; 63-66.
- Wenting Yin, Louise Hewson, Robert Linforth, Moira Taylor, Ian D. Fisk. Effects of aroma and taste, independently or in combination, on appetite sensation and subsequent food intake. Appetite, 2017; 114: 265-274.
- Remco C. Havermans, Laurent Brondel. Satiety in face of variety: On sensory-specific satiety and perceived food variety. Food Quality and Preference, 2013; 28 (1): 161-163.
- Edgar Soria-Gomez, Luigi Bellocchio, Giovanni Marsicano. New insights on food intake control by olfactory processes: The emerging role of the endocannabinoid system. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, 2014; 397 (1-2): 59-66.
- S. Chambaron, Q. Chisin, C. Chabanet, S. Issanchou, G. Brand. Impact of olfactory and auditory priming on the attraction to foods with high energy density. Appetite, 2015; 95: 74-80.